Leveraging International Forums to Uphold Mohawk Treaty Rights

Published on September 27, 2023 by Secretary General


The Mohawk people, inheritors of a rich cultural heritage and storied history, have faced a series of challenges rooted in colonial history, including treaty violations and economic disparities. Central to their struggle is the international significance of the Haldimand Proclamation of 1784. In this essay, we delve into the historical context of Queen Anne’s commissioning of a committee in 1704 to resolve boundary disputes between the sovereign crown and Indian tribal governments, particularly as exemplified in the Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut case. We explore the enduring relevance of this historical precedent and the potential for leveraging international forums, such as the Peace Palace and the Permanent Court of Arbitration, to address contemporary issues facing the Mohawk people.

Queen Anne’s Historical Influence

Queen Anne, reigning from 1702 to 1714, played an unexpected yet pivotal role in the quest for justice and sovereignty of indigenous communities in the British North American colonies. Her recognition of the need to impartially resolve boundary disputes and uphold indigenous rights culminated in the formation of the Standing Trial Level Sub-Committee of the Appellate Level Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC). This committee was tasked with establishing independent and impartial third-party court jurisdiction over such disputes, setting a profound precedent for international arbitration and justice.

The Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut Case

A landmark example of Queen Anne’s commitment to justice can be found in the Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut case. The Mohegan Indians, like the Mohawk people, faced encroachments on their ancestral lands and sovereignty. Queen Anne recognized that existing British courts demonstrated an intrinsic bias against indigenous land claims. Consequently, the committee established in 1704 found that a special constitutional court was required to address these claims, given the pre-existing jurisdiction of indigenous tribunals and the derivative jurisdiction of the Imperial Crown.

Czar Nicholas II’s Vision and the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

In a parallel historical narrative, Czar Nicholas II of Russia played a significant role in initiating the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) during the First Hague Peace Conference of 1899. This conference, like Queen Anne’s initiative, aimed to promote peaceful resolutions to international conflicts. Inspired by the historical legacy of leaders like Queen Anne, Czar Nicholas II advocated for the establishment of the PCA as an international institution dedicated to peaceful dispute resolution. His vision sought to prevent future conflicts and promote justice among nations.

The International Character of the Haldimand Proclamation

The Haldimand Proclamation, issued in 1784, holds international significance due to its origin as a commitment from a foreign power, the British Crown, to the Mohawk people. This international character challenges the classification of the Mohawk people under the Indian Act, limiting their access to international courts for addressing treaty violations and economic challenges.

Leveraging International Forums

Drawing upon the historical precedent set by Queen Anne and the international nature of the Haldimand Proclamation, the Mohawk people have an opportunity to seek justice and uphold their sovereignty through international forums.

The Peace Palace: Established to facilitate peaceful dispute resolution between nations, the Peace Palace’s evolving mandate now includes issues related to indigenous rights and territorial claims. The Mohawk people, with their historical connection to Queen Anne’s legacy and the international vision of Czar Nicholas II, could consider pursuing arbitration or mediation at the Peace Palace to address treaty violations.

The Permanent Court of Arbitration: This institution offers a platform for resolving disputes between states and other parties. Given its broad mandate, the PCA represents another avenue for the Mohawk people to seek redress for treaty violations. The international status of the Haldimand Proclamation and the historical context surrounding it could be presented as grounds for initiating arbitration proceedings at the PCA.


Queen Anne’s legacy, as exemplified by the 1704 committee and the Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut case, alongside Czar Nicholas II’s vision for the PCA, provides a powerful historical precedent for addressing indigenous land claims and sovereignty. The Haldimand Proclamation’s international character adds weight to the Mohawk people’s quest for justice and recognition of their rights. By leveraging international forums such as the Peace Palace and the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the Mohawk people can reclaim their rights on the global stage and reaffirm the enduring relevance of historical agreements in the contemporary world. This path aligns with principles of justice, reconciliation, and the pursuit of a more equitable future.

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